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FOOTING AND ITS CLASSIFICATION




FOOTINGAs the name itself indicates that it belongs to the lower part of a structure. The footing is the lowest load-bearing part of the building, typically below ground level. It is constructed in brickwork, masonry or concrete under the base of a wall or column for the purpose of distributing the load over a larger area. "Foundation" is that part of a structure which is in direct contact with soil and transmits load into it.
Generally, there's a confusion between footing and foundation. Few major differences between footing and foundation are discussed below:



TYPES OF FOOTING:


WALL/STRIP FOOTING- A wall footing or strip footing is a continuous strip of concrete that serves to spread the weight of a load-bearing wall across an area of soil.



ISOLATED FOOTING-  An isolated footing is used to support a single column. Isolated footings are independent footings which are provided for each column.

This type of footing is generally used when:
  • Columns are not closely spaced.
  • Loads on footings are less.
  • The Safe bearing capacity of the soil is generally high.






SPREAD FOOTING- A spread footing is a circular, square or rectangular slab of uniform thickness. Sometimes, it is stepped or haunched to spread the load over a large area.


STEPPED FOOTING- Stepped footing is a type of isolated footing provided over soil having less bearing capacity. 

COMBINED FOOTINGS- When two or more columns are supported by a footing it is called combined footing. This footing may be of rectangular or trapezoidal in plan

STRAP FOOTINGS- In such footing, the outer and inner column is connected by a strap beam, does not transfer any load to the soil. The individual footing areas of the columns are so arranged that the C.G of the combined loads of the two columns passes through the C.G of the two footing areas.

MAT FOUNDATION- This foundation covers the entire area under the structure. This foundation has only RCC slab covering the whole area or slab and beam together. Mat foundation is adopted when heavy structures are to be constructed on the soft made-up ground.

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