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TYPES OF I.C ENGINE










I.C. engine is widely used in automobile industries so it is also known as an automobile engine. An automobile engine may be classified in many manners.
According to the number of strokes:

1. Two stroke engine

In a two-stroke engine, a piston moves one time up and down inside the cylinder and complete one crankshaft revolution during a single time of fuel injection. This type of engine has high torque compared to the four-stroke engine. These are generally used in scooters, pumping sets, etc.

2. Four stroke engine

In a four-stroke engine, the piston moves two times up and down inside the cylinder and complete two crankshaft revolutions during a single time of fuel burn. This type of engines has high average compared to the two-stroke engine. These are generally used in bikes, cars, truck, etc.






According to the design of the engine:

1. Reciprocating engine (piston engine)

In a reciprocating engine, the pressure force generates by combustion of fuel exerted on a piston (A device which frees to move in reciprocation inside the cylinder). The piston starts reciprocating motion (too and fro motion). This reciprocating motion converts into rotary motion by use of crankshaft. So the crankshaft starts to rotate and make rotate the wheels of the vehicle. These are generally used in all automobile.

2. Rotary engine (Wankel engine)

In the rotary engine, there is a rotor which frees to rotate. The pressure force generated by burning of fuel is exerted on this rotor so the rotor rotates and starts to rotate the wheels of the vehicle. This engine is developed by Wankel in 1957. This engine is not used in the automobile in present days.

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According to fuel used:

1. Diesel engine
These engines use diesel as the fuel. These are used in trucks, buses, cars, etc.





2. Petrol engine
These engines use petrol as fuel. These are used in bikes, sports cars, luxury cars, etc.

3. Gas engine
These engines use CNG and LPG as the fuel. These are used in some light motor vehicles.


According to the method of ignition:

1. Compression ignition engine
In these types of engines, there is no extra equipment to ignite the fuel. In these engines burning of fuel starts due to temperature rise during compression of air. So it is known as compression ignition engine.

2. Spark ignition engine
In these types of engines, ignition of fuel starts by a spark, generated inside the cylinder by some extra equipment (Spark Plug). So it is known as the spark ignition engine.





According to the number of cylinders:

1. Single cylinder engine
In this type of engines have only one cylinder and one piston connected to the crankshaft.

2. Multi-cylinder engine
In this type of engines have more than one cylinder and piston connected to the crankshaft


According to an arrangement of cylinder:

1. In-line engine
In this type of engines, cylinders are positioned in a straight line one behind the other along the length of the crankshaft.

2. V-type engine
An engine with two cylinder banks inclined at an angle to each other and with one crankshaft known as V-type engine.

3. Opposed cylinder engine
An engine with two cylinders banks opposite to each other on a single crankshaft (V-type engine with a 180o angle between banks).





4. W-type engine
An engine same as V-type engine except with three banks of cylinders on the same crankshaft known as W-type engine.

5. Opposite piston engine
In this type of engine, there are two pistons in each cylinder with the combustion chamber in the center between the pistons. In this engine, a single combustion process causes two power strokes, at the same time.

6. Radial engine
It is an engine with pistons positioned in the circular plane around the central crankshaft. The connecting rods of pistons are connected to a master rod which, in turn, connected to the crankshaft.


According to the air intake process:

1. Naturally Aspirated
In these types of engine intake of air into cylinder occur by the atmospheric pressure.





2. Supercharged engine
In this type of engine air intake, the pressure is increased by the compressor driven by the engine crankshaft.

3. Turbocharged engine
In this type of engine, intake air pressure is increased by the use of a turbine compressor driven by the exhaust gases of burning fuel.







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