Lathe machine: Main Parts, Operation and Working

Lathe machine is a basic machine that is used in every metal forming industry. It is a combination of many parts that work together to perform a desirable function. A lathe machine is used to machine cylindrical workpiece which is 360-degree symmetrical form the axis of rotation. It used to perform turning, chamfering, boring, facing, internal threading, shaping, slot cutting, etc. on the cylindrical workpiece.

There are many types of lathe machine but each machine consists of some basic part which is essential for its proper working. These parts are the bed, tool post, Chuck, headstock, tailstock, legs, Gear chain, lead screw, carriage, cross slide, split nut, apron, chip pan, guideways, etc. These parts work together to obtain the desire motion of tool and workpiece so it can be machined.

The lathe machine works on the basic principle that when the workpiece rotates at a constant speed and a tool is introduced between its rotation, it cut the metal. This is a basic fundamental of it.

Lathe machine: Main Parts, Operation and Working

We have briefly discussed parts and working of the lathe machine in the upper section of this article. Now we will describe it.

Parts of Lathe Machine:

The lathe consists of the following parts.

1. Bed

It is the main body of the machine. All main components are bolted on it. It is usually made by cast-iron due to its high compressive strength and high lubrication quality. It is made by the casting process and bolted on floor space.

2. Toolpost

It is bolted on the carriage. It is used to hold the tool in the correct position. Tool holder mounted on it.

3. Chuck

Chuck is used to holding the workspace. It is bolted on the spindle which rotates the chuck and workpiece. It is four jaws and three-jaw according to the requirement of the machine.

4. Headstock

The headstock is the main body parts that are placed on the left side of the bed. It serves as a holding device for the gear chain, spindle, driving pulley, etc. It is also made by cast iron.

5. Tailstock

Tailstock situated on bed. It is placed on the right-hand side of the bed. The main function of the tailstock to support the job when required. It is also used to perform drilling operations.

6. Lead screw

The lead screw is situated at the bottom side of the bed which is used to move the carriage automatically during thread cutting.

7. Legs

Legs are used to carry all the loads of the machine. They are bolted on the floor which prevents vibration.

8. Carriage

It is situated between the headstock and tailstock. It is used to hold and move the tool post on the bed vertically and horizontally. It slides on the guideways. Carriage is made by cast iron.

9. Apron

It is situated on the carriage. It consists of all-controlling and moving mechanisms of carriage.

10. Chips pan

Chips pan is placed lower side of the bed. The main function of it carries all chips removed by the workpiece.

11. Guideways

Guideways to take care of the movement of tailstock and carriage on the bed.

12. Speed controller

Speed controller switch is situated on the headstock which controls the speed of the spindle.

13. Spindle

It is the main part of the lathe which holds and rotates the chuck.

Lathe Machine Operation & Working

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