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Mechanical Properties Of Materials








Properties of Materials








Elasticity

Elasticity is the property by virtue of which a material is deformed under the load and is enabled to return to its original dimension when the load is removed.

Plasticity





The characteristic of the material by which it undergoes inelastic strains beyond those at the elastic limit is known as plasticity.

Ductility

Ductility is the characteristic which permits a material to be drawn out longitudinally to a reduced section, under the action of a tensile force. A ductile material possesses a high degree of plasticity strength.







Brittleness

A material is said to be brittle when it cannot be drawn out by tension to the smaller section. e.g. glass, ceramic, etc
In brittle material, failure takes place under load without significant deformation.





Malleability

It is a property of a material that permits the material to be extended in all directions without rapture. A malleable material possesses a high degree of plasticity, but not necessarily great strength.

Toughness

It is the property of a material that enable it to absorb energy without fracture. It is desirable in materials that are subject to cyclic or shock loading. Bend test used for common comparative tests for toughness.








Hardness

Hardness is the ability of a material to resist indentation or surface abrasion. The Brinell hardness test is used to check the hardness. 





Brinell Hardness Number (BHN)   

where, P = Standard load,
                         D = Diameter of steel ball 
                                 d = Diameter of the indent (mm)








Strength

The property enables the material to resist fracture under load.
Load required to cause a fracture, divided by area of specimen is known as ultimate strength.







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