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Single Point Cutting Tool : Nomenclature, Angle,Geometry and Signature







Single Point Cutting Tool:





A single point cutting tool consists of Flank, face, cutting edge, nose, rack angle, clearance angle, cutting edge angle, etc. All of these parts control the cutting condition, tool life, and cutting speed of the tool. These parts describe as follows.


Geometry and Tool angles of Single Point Cutting Tool:






Shank:

The main body of the tool is known as the shank. It is the backward part of the tool which is held by tool post.

Face:

The top surface tool on which chips pass after cutting is known as a face. It is the horizontal surface adjacent to cutting edges.





Flank:

Sometime flank is also known as cutting face. It is the vertical surface adjacent to the cutting edge. According to cutting edge, there are two flank side flank and end flank.

Nose or Cutting point:

The point where both cutting edges meet known as cutting point or nose. It is in front of the tool.








Base:

The bottom surface of the tool is known as the base. It is just the opposite surface of the face.





Heel:

It is an intersecting line of face and base.

End cutting edge angle:

The angle between the end cutting edge or flank to the plane perpendicular to the side of the shank is known as the end cutting angle.








Side cutting edge angle:

The angle between the side cutting edge or flank to the plane parallel to the side of the shank known as side cutting edge angle.

Back rake angle:

The angled form to smooth flowing of chips from the face, known as rack angle. It allows the smoothing flow of chips. The back rack angle is the angle between the face and the plane perpendicular to the end cutting edge.





Side rack angle:

The angle between the face and plane perpendicular to the side cutting edge is known as the side rack angle. It allows chips to flow smoothly when material cut by side cutting edge.

End relief angle:

It is also known as a clearance angle. It is the angle that avoids tool wear. It avoids the rubbing of flank with the workpiece. End cutting angle made by end flank to the plane perpendicular to the base.





Side relief angle:

It is the angle made by the side flank to the plane perpendicular to the base. It avoids rubbing of side flank with the workpiece.





Nose radius:

The intersecting area of both cutting edges is known as the nose of the tool. It does not have a sharp profile. The sharp profile may cause scratches on the workpiece which gives poor surface finish. To avoid this and obtain good surface finish this area is at some radius known as nose radius. If the radius is too small is gives poor surface finish and if it is too large give poor For better understanding watch the video given below.







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