• Mould is used for producing a casting. Molten metal is conveyed into the mold cavity by using a Gating system. In the casting process, the gating system plays an important role to produce the high-quality casting. A poorly designed gating system results in casting defects. A gating system controls the mold filling process. The main function of the gating system is to lead molten metal from the ladle to the casting cavity ensuring smooth, uniform, and complete filling.
    Elements of Gating System
  • Pouring Cup
  • Spruce
  • Spruce Well
  • Cross-gate or Runner
  • Ingate or Gates
  • Pouring Cup – It is the funnel-shaped opening, made at the top of the mold. The main purpose of the pouring basin is to direct the flow of molten metal from the ladle to the sprue.
  • Spruce – It is a vertical passage that connects the pouring basin to the runner or gate. It is generally made tapered downward to avoid aspiration of air. The cross-section of the sprue may be square, rectangular, or circular.
  • Spruce Well – It is located at the base of the sprue. It arrests the free fall of molten metal through the sprue and turns it by a right angle towards the runner.
  • Runner – It is a long horizontal channel that carries molten metal and distributes it to the ingates. It will ensure proper supply of molten metal to the cavity so that proper filling of the cavity takes place.
  • Gate – These are small channels connecting the mold cavity and the runner. The gates used may vary in a number depends on the size of the casting.

  • The function of the Gating System
  • A good gating system should help easy and complete filling of the mold cavity.
  • It should fill the mold cavity with molten metal with the least amount of turbulence.
  • It should prevent mold erosion.
  • It should establish a proper temperature gradient in the casting.
  • It should promote directional solidification.
  • It should regulate the rate of flow of metal into the mold cavity.

  • Defects occurring due to improper design of the gating system
  • Oxidation of metal
  • Cold shuts
  • Mold erosion
  • Shrinkages
  • Porosity
  • Misruns
  • Penetration of liquid metal into mold walls.
  • Types Of Gates
  • Depending upon the orientation of the parting plane.
  • – Horizontal Gating System
    -Vertical Gating System

  • Depending upon the position of ingate, horizontal gating system.
  • -Top Gating System
    -Bottom Gating System
    -Parting-line Gating System

    Pouring Time
  • The pouring rate is nothing but the time taken for filling the mold cavity by a known quantity of metal i.e., Pouring time can be used as an index to determine the pouring rate.
  • When molten metal is being poured into the mold at a very fast rate, mold erosion, rough surface, excessive shrinkage may take place.
  • When the pouring rate is very low, the complete filling of the mold is not assured and may result in an excessive drop in the molten metal temperature.
  • This result in casting defects such as cold shut, mis-run, etc.,
  • In order to avoid this, it is necessary to arrive at the correct rate of pouring metal into the mold cavity.
  • The type of metal, size, and shape of the casting decide the pouring rate.

  • Gating Ratio
  • The gating ratio refers to the relation between the area of the choke to the total area of runner total area of Ingates. Mathematically, it can be written as Ac: Ar: Ag. The gating system completely controls the molten metal flow. Gating systems can be classified as a Pressurised system and an Unpressurised system. The gating ratio depends on the nature of the molten metal.
  • A pressurized system is used for reactive metals like magnesium alloy etc. An unpressurized gating system is used for normal metals such as brass, steel, aluminum alloy, etc.
  • A Gating ratio such as 1:2:1 or 1:0.75:0.5 refers to the pressured system; whereas the gating ratio such as 1:2:2 or 1:3:3, 1:1:3, refers to an unpressurized gating system.
  • A pressurized system is referred to as the “Gate Control System” since ingates control of the flow of metal.
  • Unpressurised system is referred to as “Choke Control System”, since the choke controls the flow of metal.
  • In the pressurized system, high metal velocity occurs and results in turbulence. In the case of an unpressurized system, turbulence is produced, and streamline flow is induced.
  • Pressurized System Consumes less metal and yield is more. Unpressurised system consumes more metal and the yield will be slightly lowered.
  • In the case of a pressurized system, the system will always be full of liquid metal. In the case of an unpressurized system, flow is not full.

  • Guidelines for Designing a Gating System
  • The size of the sprue fixes the flow rate. The amount of molten metal that can be fed into the mold cavity in a given time period is limited by the size of the sprue.
  • The sprue should be located at a certain distance from the gates
    so as to minimize the velocity of molten metal at ingates.
  • Sprue should be tapered by approximately 5% minimum to
    avoid aspiration of the air and free fall of the metal.
  • Ingates should be located in thick regions.
  • Locate the gates so as to minimize the erosion of the sand mold by the metal stream. This may be achieved by orienting the gates in the direction of the natural flow paths.
  • Multiple gating is frequently desirable. This has the advantage of lower pouring temperatures, which improves the metallurgical structure of the casting. In addition, multiple gating helps to reduce the temperature gradients in the casting.

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